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THE ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ ORAL THE TERRORS AND ERROR CORRECTION STRATEGIES USED BY THE TEACHERS IN ENGLISH CLASSROOM (A CASE STUDY AT MAN 2 BANDA ACEH)

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ABSTRACT Novarita. 2015. The Analysis of Students’ Oral Errors and Error Correction Strategies Used by the Teachers in English Classroom. A Case Study at MAN 2 Banda Aceh. Thesis, Graduate Program in English Language Education of Syiah Kuala University. Advisors: (1) Dr. Asnawi, S.Pd., M.Ed. (2) Dr. Zulfadli A. Aziz, S.Pd., M.A. Key words: oral errors, error correction strategy This qualitative research aims at investigating the errors commonly made by second grade students and the teachers’ strategies in correcting the students’ oral errors. It also tried to find out the students’ responses toward the error correction received from their teachers and the types of the teachers’ error correction strategies that are preferred by the students. The participants of this research were 34 second grade students and two English teachers at MAN 2 Banda Aceh. The instruments for this research were observation sheet, interview guide and questionnaire. I observed and recorded the communication of the students and the two teachers for about six days in two settings: a learning situation and mid-term oral test. Five error classifications: lexical, phonological, syntactic, interpretive, and pragmatic, and seven corrective feedback types; explicit, recast, clarification request, metalinguistic feedback, elicitation, repetition and other strategy were used as the unit of analysis. The teachers were interviewed in order to get additional information about their responses toward the students’ errors. The students were interviewed about their responses after being corrected. They had also been given a questionnaire in order to find out their preferences on the teachers’ correction. The data were then analyzed descriptively and presented in table and chart. The findings of the study showed that from 184 errors made during the six observations; 12 errors were classified as lexical errors, 87 were phonological errors, 34 syntactic errors, 46 interpretive errors and 5 pragmatic ones. Regarding the findings of correction, from the total 69 corrections, it was found that Explicit Corrective Feedback was used as many as 25 times, Recast 4 times, Clarification Request 0 times, Metalinguistic Feedback about 19 times, Elicitation 9 times, Repetition 9 times, and Other Strategy 3 times. From the students’ interview, it revealed that there were 15 students who said that they had a positive feeling about being corrected. 9 of them felt neutral and the other 10 had a negative feeling of being corrected. The result of the questionnaire given to the students showed that Explicit Corrective Feedback was chosen about 80 times out of the total 170 with various errors. Recast was chosen 24 times, Clarification Request 8 times, Metalinguistic Feedback 32 times, Elicitation 14 times, Repetition 10 times, and Other Strategy was chosen twice. Hence, due to the massive phonological errors, it is suggested that the teachers show the students how to pronounce the unknown word after they have been given a chance to elicit it. In order to make the learning last longer, it is better to give a chance for the students to correct their errors first although Explicit Corrected feedback was preferred by most of the students. ABSTRAK Novarita. 2015. Studi Analisa Kesalahan Lisan Siswa dan Strategi Pengkoreksian Kesalahan yang digunakan oleh Guru di Kelas Bahasa Inggris. Sebuah Studi Kasus di MAN 2 Banda Aceh. Tesis, Program Pascasarjana Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Universitas Syiah Kuala Pembimbing : (1) Dr. Asnawi, S.Pd., M.Ed. (2) Dr. Zulfadli A. Aziz, S.Pd., M.A. Kata Kunci : Kesalahan dalam bahasa lisan, strategi koreksi kesalahan. Penelitian kualitatif ini bertujuan untuk mencari tahu kesalahan lisan yang biasanya dilakukan siswa kelas dua dan strategi yang digunakan oleh guru dalam pengkoreksiannya. Penelitian ini juga berupaya untuk mengetahui respon siswa terhadap pengkoreksian yang mereka terima dari gurunya dan jenis strategi pengkoreksian yang menjadi pilihan siswa. Partisipan dari penelitian ini adalah 34 siswa kelas dua dan dua orang guru Bahasa Inggris di MAN 2 Banda Aceh. Instrumen dari penelitian ini adalah lembar observasi, pedoman interview dan angket. Saya mengamati dan merekam komunikasi yang terjadi antar para siswa dan dua orang gurunya selama enam hari dalam dua situasi: pada saat belajar mengajar dan pada saat ujian tengah semester. Lima jenis kesalahan; leksikal, fonologi, sintaksis, interpretif dan pragmatis, serta tujuh jenis pengkoreksian; explicit, recast, clarification request, metalinguistic, elicitation, repetition and other strategy digunakan sebagai dasar analisa. Para guru diwawancarai untuk mendapatkan informasi tambahan mengenai respon mereka terhadap kesalahan siswa. Para siswa diwawancarai mengenai respon mereka setelah mendapatkan pengkoreksian. Mereka juga diberikan angket untuk mengetahui cara pengkoreksian guru yang lebih mereka sukai. Data yang diperoleh kemudian dianalisa secara deskriptif dan ditampilkan dalam bentuk tabel dan bagan. Temuan penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa dari 187 kesalahan yang terjadi selama enam hari pengamatan; 12 kesalahan termasuk dalam kategori leksikal, 87 fonologi, 34 sintaksis, 46 interpretif dan 5 pragmatis. Untuk strategi pengkoreksian dari total 69 pengkoreksian ditemukan: Explicit Corrective Feedback digunakan sebanyak 25 kali, Recast 4 kali, clarification request 0 kali, Metalinguistic Feedback 19 kali, elicitation 9 kali, repetition 9 kali, dan other strategy digunakan sebanyak 3 kali. Hasil dari wawancara siswa didapatkan data bahwa dari total 34 siswa, 15 orang siswa mengatakan memiliki perasaaan yang positif mengenai pengkoreksian. 9 orang siswa merasa biasa saja dan 10 orang lagi menyatakan perasaan negative ketika dikoreksi. Hasil dari angket didapatkan bahwa Explicit Corrective Feedback dipilih sebanyak 80 kali dari total 170 kali pemilihan dalam berbagai kesalahan. Recast dipilih 24 kali, clarification request 8 kali, metalinguistic 32 kali, elicitation 14 kali, repetition 10 kali, dan other strategy sebanyak 2 kali. Dari hasil tersebut disimpulkan bahwa kesalahan fonologi merupakan masalah utama bagi siswa di MAN 2 Banda Aceh, oleh karena itu disarankan agar guru menunjukkan cara pengucapan suatu kata yang benar dari kata yang tidak diketahui siswa setelah siswa diberikan kesempatan untuk mencari tahu terlebih dahulu. Dalam hal agar pembelajaran berlangsung terus, akan lebih baik bagi guru agar memberikan kesempatan pada siswa untuk memperbaiki sendiri kesalahan mereka terlebih dahulu setelah diberikan tanda bahwa mereka melakukan kesalahan walaupun Explicit Corrected feedback merupakan cara pengkoreksian pilihan mereka.

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