INTEGRASI PASAR DAN DAYA SAING KAKAO INDONESIA DI PASAR INTERNASIONAL | ELECTRONIC THESES AND DISSERTATION

Electronic Theses and Dissertation

Universitas Syiah Kuala

    DISSERTATION

INTEGRASI PASAR DAN DAYA SAING KAKAO INDONESIA DI PASAR INTERNASIONAL


Pengarang

Ahmad Ridha - Personal Name;

Dosen Pembimbing

Raja Masbar - 195304191980121001 - Dosen Pembimbing I
Aliasuddin - 196705111992031002 - Dosen Pembimbing II
Vivi Silvia - 196707241992032003 - Dosen Pembimbing III



Nomor Pokok Mahasiswa

1801301010002

Fakultas & Prodi

Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis / Ilmu Ekonomi (S3) / PDDIKTI : 60001

Penerbit

Banda Aceh : Program Doktor Ilmu Ekonomi., 2022

Bahasa

Indonesia

No Classification

382

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Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1) untuk menganalisis integrasi pasar biji kakao, kakao olahan Indonesia dan pasar biji kakao dunia. (2) untuk menganalisis transmisi harga asimetris biji kakao di tingkat produsen (petani) dengan produk kakao olahan Indonesia dan pasar biji kakao dunia. (3) untuk menganalisis tingkat daya saing ekspor biji kakao dan kakao olahan Indonesia di pasar internasional. (4) untuk menganalisis struktur pasar kakao olahan di negara tujuan ekspor Indonesia. Untuk mencapai tujuan penelitian digunakan metode analisis yaitu model Nonlinier autoregressive distributed lag, Normalized Revealed Comparative Advantage, Rasio Konsentrasi dan Herfindahl-Hirschman indeks. Variabel penelitian yang digunakan terdiri dari harga biji kakao di tingkat produsen, harga biji kakao di pasar global, harga ekspor pasta kakao, pajak ekspor sebagai variabel dummy, dan nilai ekspor kakao olahan (pasta, butter dan bubuk kakao). Untuk menganalisis tujuan 1 dan 2 digunakan data bulanan Januari 2007 - Desember 2020. Sedangkan data tahun 2007-2020 digunakan untuk menganalisis tujuan 3 dan 4. Hasil penelitian (1) terdapat kointegrasi asimetris antara pasar biji kakao global dan harga pasta kakao terhadap harga kakao petani di Indonesia. (2) adanya bukti transmisi harga asimetris negatif dimana guncangan harga negatif (penurunan) di pasar global dan pasta kakao lebih cepat ditransmisikan ke harga petani daripada guncangan harga positif. Penyesuaian harga terjadi dalam besaran dan kecepatan. Tingginya koefisien transmisi harga asimetris negatif menunjukkan tidak kompetitifnya rantai pasokan-permintaan kakao Indonesia. (3) daya saing ekspor kakao olahan Indonesia meningkat secara signifikan pasca pemberlakukan pajak ekspor biji kakao. (4) hasil estimasi struktur pasar kakao di pasar global berbentuk oligopoli. Implikasi dari pajak ekspor biji kakao telah menurunkan harga biji kakao di tingkat produsen sebesar 2,3 persen.

This study aimed (1) to determine the integration of the cocoa bean market, Indonesian processed cocoa products, and the world cocoa bean market. (2) to determine the asymmetric price transmission of cocoa beans at the producer level with Indonesian processed cocoa products and the world cocoa market. (3) to determine the level of competitiveness of Indonesian cocoa and processed cocoa exports in the international market. (4) to determine the market structure of processed cocoa in Indonesia's export destination countries. The analytical methods were used, namely the Nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag model, Normalized Revealed Comparative Advantage, Concentration Ratio and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. The research variables used consisted of the price of cocoa beans at the producer level, the price of cocoa in the global market, the export price of cocoa pasta, export taxes as dummy variables and processed cocoa export value (pasta, butter and powder cocoa). To analyze objectives 1 and 2 used monthly time series data from January 2007 to December 2020. While the annual data from 2007 to 2020 were used to analyze objectives 3 and 4. In the study results (1), there is an asymmetric cointegration between the global cocoa bean market and the price of cocoa pasta on the price of cocoa farmers in Indonesia. (2) there is evidence of negative asymmetric price transmission. Negative (downward) price shocks in global markets and cocoa pasta are transmitted more quickly to farmer prices than positive price shocks. Price adjustments occur in magnitude and speed. The high negative asymmetric price transmission coefficient indicates the uncompetitiveness of the supply-demand chain of Indonesian cocoa. (3) the Indonesia competitiveness of processed cocoa export has increased significantly after implementing the cocoa bean export tax. (4) the estimation result of the cocoa market structure in the global market is an oligopoly. The implication of the cocoa bean export tax has been to reduce the price of cocoa beans at the producer level by 2.3 percent.

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