KARAKTER FENOTIPE DAN GENOTIPE PADI HASIL PERSILANGAN VARIETAS LOKAL DAN VARIETAS INTRODUKSI | ELECTRONIC THESES AND DISSERTATION

Electronic Theses and Dissertation

Universitas Syiah Kuala

    DISSERTATION

KARAKTER FENOTIPE DAN GENOTIPE PADI HASIL PERSILANGAN VARIETAS LOKAL DAN VARIETAS INTRODUKSI


Pengarang

Muhammad Jalil - Personal Name;

Dosen Pembimbing

Sabaruddin - 196806101993031002 - Dosen Pembimbing I
Bakhtiar - 196811011996031003 - Dosen Pembimbing II
Efendi - 196412311990031246 - Dosen Pembimbing III



Nomor Pokok Mahasiswa

1509300030002

Fakultas & Prodi

Fakultas Pasca Sarjana / Program Doktor Ilmu Pertanian (S3) / PDDIKTI : 54001

Penerbit

Banda Aceh : Program Studi Doktor Ilmu Pertanian Universitas Syiah Kuala., 2022

Bahasa

Indonesia

No Classification

633.18

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Padi lokal merupakan plasma nutfah potensial sebagai sumber gen yang dapat mengendalikan sifat-sifat penting pada tanaman padi. Keragaman genetik padi lokal dapat dimanfaatkan dalam program pemuliaan tanaman. Propinsi Aceh memiliki banyak plasma nutfah padi lokal yang tersebar hampir diseluruh kabupaten. Beberapa plasma nutfah padi lokal Aceh memiliki ciri populer seperti aroma harum, tekstur nasi dan pulen. Selain itu, plasma nutfah padi lokal memiliki daya adaptif yang tinggi terhadap cekaman lingkungan. Sumberdaya genetik padi lokal dapat dimanfaatkan untuk perakitan varietas baru sebagai upaya untuk menghadapi perubahan iklim, permintaan pasar dan sebagai cadangan sumberdaya genetik untuk pengembangan ilmu pemuliaan tanaman.
Padi lokal Aceh Sigupai dan Tinggong memiliki umur dalam (5-6 bulan) dengan arsitektur tanaman tinggi sehingga tidak tahan rebah sehingga mengakibatkan kehilangan produksi dalam penanganan pascapanen. Kedua padi lokal ini juga memiliki daya tahan yang rendah terhadap genangan air terutama kalau ditanam pada daerah yang sering tergenang bila musim hujan. Selain itu, padi lokal ini juga tidak tahan terhadap penyakit hawar daun bakteri.
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi genotipe turunan padi lokal Aceh hasil persilangan yang membawa sifat-sifat unggul yaitu keturunan yang mewariskan gen sd-1, Sub-1, fgr dan Xa-27. Selain itu, diharapkan melalui penelitian ini akan diperoleh galur harapan padi unggul berumur genjah, arsitektur tanaman pendek, tahan terhadap genangan, tahan terhadap penyakit hawar daun bakteri, kualitas nasi pulen, wangi, enak serta adaptif terhadap cekaman lingkungan.
Penelitian I menunjukkan hasil analisis molekuler dari 104 genotipe F2 turunan Sg/Yz terdapat 64.42% mewarisi gen Fragrant dan hasil pengamatan karakter agronomi terhadap 61 genotipe F2 turunan Sg/Yz terdapat 95.08% memiliki umur genjah, 59.01% memiliki arsitektur tanaman pendek dan 9.83% memiliki potensi hasil 4.04-5.33 ton ha-1 (#T3, T8, T21, T31, T47 dan T46).
Penelitian II menunjukkan hasil uji ketahanan penyakit HDB (Xoo strain IV) dari 48 genotipe F3 turunan Tg/IRBB27 terdapat 29.17% bereaksi tahan, 39.58% bereaksi agak tahan, 8.33% bereaksi agak rentan dan 22.91% bereaksi rentan. Analisis molekuler terhadap 48 genotipe F3 turunan Tg/IRBB27 didapat 62.50% mewarisi gen Xa-27, 66.67% mewarisi gen sd-1 dan 58.33% mewarisi gen Xa-27 dan sd-1. Terdapat 4 genotipe F3 ¬¬turunan Tg/IRBB27 (#T5, T6, T29 dan T30) yang prospektif untuk dikembangkan lebih lanjut berdasarkan kriteria umur genjah (116-120 HSS), arsitektur tanaman pendek (109-128 cm) dan estimasi produksi 6.56-8.53 ton ha-1, mewarisi gen Xa-27 dan sd-1 serta tahan terhadap penyakit HDB strain IV.
Penelitian III menunjukkan hasil analisis molekuler dari 60 genotipe F2 turunan Sg/Sw terdapat 68.33% mewarisi gen Sub-1, 61.66% mewarisi gen sd-1 dan 46,66% mewarisi gen Sub-1 dan sd-1. Terdapat 7 genotipe F2 ¬¬turunan Sg/Sw (#T44, T53, T18, T47, T59, T30, dan T60) yang prospektif untuk dikembangkan lebih lanjut berdasarkan kriteria ketahanan terhadap genangan, umur genjah (102-115 HSS), arsitektur tanaman pendek (94-120 cm), estimasi produksi 5.03-8.78 ton ha-1 serta mewarisi gen sub-1 dan sd-1.
Hasil analisis molekuler dari 53 genotipe BC1F2 turunan Sg/Sw terdapat 47.17% mewarisi gen Sub-1, 79.25% mewarisi gen sd-1 dan 35.85% mewarisi gen Sub-1 dan sd-1. Terdapat 3 genotipe BC1F2 ¬¬turunan Sg/Sw (#T20.7, T24.11 dan T24.12) yang prospektif untuk dikembangkan lebih lanjut berdasarkan kriteria ketahanan terhadap genangan dan umur genjah berkisar (122-124 HSS), arsitektur tanaman pendek (132-158 cm) dan estimasi produksi 5.09-9.02 ton ha-1 serta mewarisi gen Sub-1 dan sd-1.

Local rice might be a source of germplasm for genes that control important rice plant characteristics. Local rice's genetic diversity can be used in plant breeding initiatives. There are various local rice germplasm collections in almost every district in Aceh Province. Some of Aceh's native rice germplasm possesses desirable characteristics such as a pleasant smell, fluffy rice, and a nice grain texture. Local rice germplasm is also extremely adaptable to environmental conditions. Local rice genetic resources are accessible for use in developing new varieties in response to climatic change, market need, and as a reserve in a genetic resource bank for the improvement of plant breeding research. Sigupai and Tinggong are Aceh's native rice types, with an average age of 5-6 months and the architecture of high-height plants that make them susceptible to dropping, resulting in minimal post-harvest loss production. Both of these native rice types are sensitive to submergence, particularly when planted in places prone to submergence during the rainy season. The native rice, on the other hand, is sensitive to bacterial leaf blight. Furthermore, these indigenous rice cultivars are sensitive to bacterial leaf blight. The goal of this research is to determine the genotype of indigenous Acehnese rice from crossings with excellent features, especially progenies that inherited genes sd-1, Sub-1, fgr and Xa-27. Furthermore, this study is predicted to result in the production of superior rice lines that mature early, have a lower plant height, are tolerant of submergence, are resistant to bacterial leaf blight, are fluffier, fragrant, palatable, and are resistant to environmental obstacles. The first study found that 64.42% of 104 genotype F2 Sg/Yz progenies inherited the Fragrant gene, and the results of agronomic character observations of 61 Sg/Yz genotype F2 progenies were 95.08% had early maturity, 59.01% had short plant architecture, and 9.83% had potential yield of 4.04-5.33 tons ha-1 (#T3, T8, T21, T31, T47, and T46). The second study found that 29.17% of 48 genotype F3 progenies Tg/IRBB27 responded resistant to the bacterial leaf blight disease resistance test (Xoo strain IV), 39.58% reacted moderately, 8.33% reacted moderately, and 22.91% reacted susceptible. Molecular examination of 48 Tg/IRBB27 F3 progenies revealed that 62.50% inherited the Xa-27 gene, 66.67% inherited the sd-1 gene, and 58.33% inherited both the Xa-27 and sd-1 genes. Tg/IRBB27 F3 genotypes (#T5, T6, T29, and T30) are being developed further based on criteria for early maturity (116-120 DAS), reduced plant height (109-128 cm), and predicted output of 6.56-8.53 tons ha-1, inherited Xa-27 and sd1 genes were resistant to bacterial leaf blight strain IV. The third study found that 68.33% of 60 genotype F2 progenies Sg/Sw inherited the Sub-1 gene, 61.66% inherited the sd-1 gene, and 46.66% inherited both the Sub-1 and sd-1 genes. There are 7 F2 genotypes progenies Sg/Sw off spring (#T44, T53, T18, T47, T59, T30, and T60) that are promising for further development based on submergence resistance, early maturity (102-115 DAS), lower plant height (94-120 cm), production estimated at 5.03-8.78 tons ha-1, and inherited Sub-1 and sd-1 genes. According to the findings of molecular analysis of 53 genotype BC1F2 progenies Sg/Sw, 47.17% inherited the Sub-1 gene, 79.25% inherited the sd-1 gene, and 35.85% inherited both the Sub-1 and sd-1 genes. There are three genotypes of BC1F2 progenies Sg/Sw off spring (#T20.7, T24.11, and T24.12) that are promising for further development based on the criteria for submergence resistance and early maturing age (122-124 DAS), lower plant height (132-158 cm), and an estimated production of 5.09 - 9.02 tons ha-1 and inherited the Sub-1 and sd-1 genes.

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